The changeover to the A1 model was completed in the s, the A3 in the s, and the A5 in The rifles have had many sub-variations in telescopic sightsand smaller user modifications. The M40A5 incorporates a detachable magazine and a threaded barrel to allow for the use of a sound suppressor or other muzzle device. The original M40 was a military type-classified version of the Remington ; it was factory-made, and had a one-piece wooden stock. During the Vietnam Warthe Marine Corps decided they needed a standard sniper rifle.
With time, certain weaknesses, primarily warping of the all-wood stock, became apparent. The Corps began looking at a replacement for the M40 series inbut did not draft requirements until while working with SOCOM. In Aprilthe U. Marine Corps announced they would be replacing the M40 with the Mk 13 Mod 7. The Mk 13 chambered in. Army M Enhanced Sniper Rifle. Development of the M40A3 began in and concluded in when it was placed into service during Operation Enduring Freedom.
It served in Operation Iraqi Freedom and other subsequent conflicts. Though its designation would remain M40A3 untilits exact configuration varied with time.
Listed here is a description of the components used in the M40A3. Barrel : The barrel is a Schneider ; inch, 6-groove, " match-grade heavy barrel. The stock has adjustable length-of-pull through a buttstock spacer system and a Marine manufactured adjustable saddle-type cheekpiece. The scope and rings are mounted on a DD Ross minute-of-angle lugged Picatinny rail. The M40A5 designation superseded the M40A3 inthough the evolution between the two systems occurred gradually over a longer period.
Upgraded features are to include a folding stock, compatible with current M40 actions and barrels, to make the rifle more compact for transportation inside confined spaces like vehicles and a full-length rail to accommodate optics and accessories; the M40A5 has only a few inches of rail space beyond the scope for a night vision optic, so extending the rail length would allow more accessories to be attached, enabling snipers to put rounds on target under any conditions.
Deliveries were to begin three months after the contract being awarded, with 1, stocks to be purchased to upgrade the entire M40A5 inventory. The resulting weapon from the program was originally to be re-designated the M40A6. Marine scout snipers had pressed for the acquisition of a longer-range sniper rifle to extend engagement capability.
Although the Mk 21 has greater range, Marine officials are continuing with upgrading the M40A-series and keeping the 7.The BVP Mis a tracked Yugoslavian-made infantry fighting vehicleproduced from the s until the country's collapse in the s. Early research and development of the M began inwith testing of the first completed prototype in It was first publicly exposed in The first production variant was the M which was only made in small numbers.
This variant received a new designation as MA. Around vehicles were produced before the breakup of the country. MA incorporates numerous elements from the French AMXP giving it more power and better protection over its counterpart.
It was used extensively during the Yugoslav Wars. In the technical-military council of Yugoslav People's Army decided that a larger caliber gun would be necessary to counter the increasingly heavy armor of possible enemy armored fighting vehicles and began development of a new turret to house the larger weapon. This requirement led to the development of the Zastava 30mm autocannon M86 in  and a new turret " Vidra " — later designated: M Incremental improvements were made to the design of the Vidra turret throughout the late s and early s.
These improvements would eventually be standardized and incorporated into a thoroughly updated turret and designated: M91E. Development is ongoing on a further modernized turret incorporating more effective ATGM armament. It is NBC protected, fire suppression system, inside heating and water ejecting system.
Crew consist of three, driver, commander and gun operator and in the after compartment there is space for six fully equipped infantrymen who can engage the enemy with personal armament through six gun slits on both vehicle sides and back doors and one squad leader who commands infantry upon exiting the vehicle.
Infantry leaves IFV through two doors at the back of the vehicle. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of Infantry fighting vehicle. Jane's Armour and Artillery Archived from the original on Retrieved IHS Jane's The U. This velocity is most likely stated based on a inch test barrel. The velocity would be reduced by about 25 fps per inch for shorter barrels. The 6-inch shorter barrel reduces velocity by fps to fps at 78 feet.
At the muzzle, this works out to fps. The drops are calculated with a meter zero. Each of the three ICS rounds has better values at meters for drop, drift, velocity, energy, and time of flight, with the sole exception of drop for the grain ICS round. The best round for drop and time of flight was the grain ICS.
But the grain ICS had the best values for drift, velocity, and energy, all at meters. The grain round might be the best compromise between those two options, with the second best out of all four choices for all criteria: drop, drift, velocity, energy, and time. At meters, the story changes. The M80A1 has the best values for drop and time of flight, due to its high muzzle velocity, despite a poor BC. Then the grain ICS has the best value for velocity at meters, due to the combination of a good BC and moderately high muzzle velocity.
The grain ICS again makes a good compromise, having pretty good values for all of the criteria. Velocities for the ICS rounds, with a inch barrel: grain at fps grain at fps grain at fps. Based on this post at The Firearm Blogwhich lists the dimensions of the bullet and its weight, AND this calculator for drag, twist, and ballistic coefficientthe G7 BC for the M80A1 bullet is about 0. Well, it is less than the poor BC of the M80 grain lead round 0. But the M80A1 has a higher velocity, and so it should have a better trajectory.
The M80A1 is a lighter projectile, launched at a higher velocity in order to approximate the trajectory of the older M80 round. Based on a small photo of the M80A1 next to the M80 1.
What might the BC be for this bullet? Well, the M80 has a G7 of. By comparison, the Berger. There is no possibility that the M80A1, as a fatter and less dense round, gets close to that value. That should be sufficient to estimate the G7 BC, given a set of BCs from bullets of the same caliber and length.
BC is directly proportional to weight, given the same basic shape, the same caliber, and the same length. The gr HBC. Dividing by gives us a reduction in BC to Green bulletgreen ammunition or green ammo are nicknames for a United States Department of Defense program to eliminate the use of hazardous materials from small arms ammunition and from small arms ammunition manufacturing.
Initial objectives were elimination of ozone-depleting substancesvolatile organic compoundsand heavy metals from primers and projectiles. These materials were perceived as causing difficulties through the entire life cycle of ammunition. The materials generated hazardous wastes and emissions at manufacturing facilities and use of ammunition caused contamination at shooting ranges.
Potential health hazards made demilitarization and disposal of unused ammunition difficult and expensive. Inlead bullet production represented the second largest use of lead in the U.
CDC suggest blood lead levels are correlated with self-reported consumption of game meat. Two green ammunition cartridges are the 5. Switching to the 5. Army representatives at a House Armed Services Committee hearing have credited the 5. Increased pressure causes gas port erosion producing a higher cyclic rate of automatic fire making jamming malfunctions more likely. Cracks in bolt locking lugs have been observed after rounds of full automatic fire with the MA1 cartridge.
The result was significant improvements to lethality of small arms. The 7. Participants met to discuss problems surrounding environmentally-friendly small arms training ammunition. Participants evaluated more than 20 potential projectile designs before moving forward with a three-piece, reverse-jacket bullet design incorporating a hardened steel penetrator and lead-free slug.
The lead-free cartridges also reduce environmental impact by removing more than 2, metric tons of lead per year that otherwise could end up in the environment. The EPR contains an environmentally-friendly projectile that eliminates lead from the manufacturing process in direct support of Army commitment to environmental stewardship.
Some of a bullet's kinetic energy is typically converted to heat if the bullet strikes a hard surface like rock.
Collision debris may include high temperature bullet fragments as sparks. Steel core and solid copper ammunition have the highest potential to start wildfires. Lead core bullets are less likely to ignite surrounding vegetation. Rifling is required to stabilize elongated bullets, and longer bullets require faster rotation for similar stability.
The rate of rotation is determined by the twist of the lands and grooves engraved on the interior of a rifled barrel. Since lead is a very dense material, bullets made of inexpensive, non-toxic materials will be lighter than bullets made of lead unless bullet length is increased.
Inferior external ballistics cause lighter bullets to be less effective against distant targets.
Increasing bullet length may require a faster rifling twist to maintain stability. Some early trials versions of the M16 rifle had " twist barrels, but this was increased to " twist in early military production to improve stability with grain 3.
Twist was increased to " after combat experience demonstrated the advantages of longer grain 4. Barrels with " twist have been used in 21st century 5. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 27 March September—October Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved Environmental Research.
Bibcode : ERThe 7. It is sometimes confused with the similarly named Russian 7. It was introduced in U. The M14 was superseded in U. However, the M14 and many other firearms that use the 7. The cartridge is used both by infantry and on mounted and crew-served weapons mounted to vehicles, aircraft and ships. Although not identical, the 7. Work that would eventually develop the 7. A less powerful cartridge would allow a lighter firing mechanism. At the time the most promising design was the.
When it was eventually demonstrated that the. Thus when war appeared to be looming again, only a couple of decades later, the. The Garand performed so well that the U. During the s and early s, several experiments were carried out to improve the M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle. One of the most common complaints was the limited-capacity, eight-round en-bloc clipand many experimental designs modified the weapon with a detachable box magazine. Springfield Armory 's T20 rifle was a fully automatic version.
The test program continued for several years, including both the original. During the s, the. Military that resulted in the development of the T65 series of experimental cartridges. The original experimental case design by the Frankford Arsenal was designated the T65 and was similar to the.Can 7.62 NATO M993 AP Defeat The King Of Armor? RMA #1189
The experimental cases were made from standard. The later T65 iterations were lengthened compared to the original T65 case and provided a ballistic performance roughly equal to the U. Over forty years of technical progress in the field of propellants allowed for similar service cartridge performance — firing a grains 9.
When the United States developed the T65 cartridge, the British military took a different route. They had spent considerable time and effort developing the intermediate-power. The U. The American philosophy was to use automatic fire for emergencies only and continue to use semi-automatic fire the majority of the time. After considerable debate, the Canadian Army announced they would be happy to use the. It was clear the U. The British did start introducing the. The T65E5 7.
Winchester saw a market for a civilian model of the late T65 series designs and introduced it intwo years prior to the NATO adoption of the T65E5 experimental cartridge iteration under the 7. Winchester branded the cartridge and introduced it to the commercial hunting market as the. The dimensions of. The chamber of the former has a marginally shorter headspace and thinner case walls than the latter due to changed specifications between and The Barrett M82A1standardized by the U. Despite its designation as an anti-materiel rifle, it is used by some armed forces as an anti-personnel system.
The M variant is also called the Light Fifty for its. The M82A2 is no longer manufactured, though the XM can be seen as its successor. Barrett Firearms Manufacturing was founded by Ronnie Barrett for the sole purpose of building semi-automatic rifles chambered for the powerful The weapon was first sold to the Swedish Army in InBarrett completed development of the XMwhich has a bullpup configuration similar to the M82A2.
The experimental OSW showed an increased effectiveness against various targets, but the recoil was beyond human limitations. One of the M82s was shipped from Chicago to Dublin in pieces, where it was re-assembled. The XM was originally intended to be a bolt-action sniper rifle, and the rifle Barrett M95 was originally selected by the U.
Army in a competition between such weapons. However, under the trials, the decision was made that the U. Army did not, in fact, require such a weapon.
Then the Army decided on the Barrett M82, a semi-automatic rifle. In summerthe M82 finally emerged from its Army trial phase and was approved for "full materiel release", meaning it was officially adopted as the Long Range Sniper Rifle, Caliber.
The M uses a Leupold 4. The Barrett M is a. Like its predecessors, the rifle is said to have manageable recoil for a weapon of its size owing to the barrel assembly that itself absorbs force, moving inward toward the receiver against large springs with every shot. Additionally, the weapon's weight and large muzzle brake also assist in recoil reduction.
Various changes were made to the original M82A1 to create the M, with new features such as a lengthened accessory rail, rear grip, and monopod socket. Barrett has recently been asked to develop a lightweight version of the M under the Anti-Materiel Sniper Rifle Congressional Program, and has already come up with a scheme to build important component parts such as the receiver frame and muzzle brake out of lighter-weight materials.
The designation has in many instances supplanted earlier ones, with the M being voted one of 's top 10 military inventions by the U. The U. The Mk22 is a bolt-action multi-caliber rifle that is powerful enough to replace the M when chambered in.
The M82 is a short-recoil semi-automatic firearm. After the short travel, the lower part of accelerator arm, held by receiver upper part, is already hinged in bolt carrier and the middle portion strikes it back to the barrel by a rod place in bolt carrier, transferring part of the recoil energy of the barrel to the bolt to achieve reliable cycling and unlock it from barrel.
The bolt is unlocked by turning in the curved cam track in the bolt carrier. Then, the barrel is stopped by the combined effect of the accelerator, buffer spring and the muzzle brake and the bolt continues back, to extract and eject a spent case. The striker is also cocked on the return stroke of the bolt. The gun is fed from a large, detachable box magazine holding up to 10 rounds, although a rare round magazine was developed for use during Operation Desert Storm in The receiver is made from two parts upper and lowerstamped from sheet steel and connected by cross-pins.
The heavy barrel is fluted to improve heat dissipation and save weight, and fitted with a large and effective reactive muzzle brake. On the earlier models, the muzzle brakes had a round cross-section; later M82 rifles are equipped with two-chamber brakes of rectangular cross-section.
M82A1 rifles are fitted with scope mount and folding backup iron sights, should the glass scope break. Every M82 rifle is equipped with a folding carrying handle and a folding bipod both are detachable on the M82A3. The M82A3 is also fitted with a detachable rear monopod under the butt.The 7. It should not be confused with the similarly named Russian 7.
It was introduced in U. The M14 was superseded in U. However, the M14 and many other firearms that use the 7. The cartridge is used both by infantry and on mounted and crew-served weapons mounted to vehicles, aircraft and ships. Although not identical, the 7. The debate goes both ways, the ATF recommends checking the stamping on the barrel; if you're unsure, consult the maker of the firearm. The cartridge itself offers similar ballistic performance in most firearms to the.
Though shorter, standard loadings fire similar bullet weights with only a slight reduction in velocity. Modern propellants allowed for similar performance from a case with less capacity. The smaller case requires less brass and yields a shorter cartridge.
This shorter cartridge allows a slight reduction in the size and weight of firearms that chamber it, and somewhat better cycling in automatic and semi-automatic rifles. Velocity comparison between the 7. Work that would eventually develop the 7. A less-powerful cartridge would allow a lighter firing mechanism. At the time the most promising design was the.
When it was eventually demonstrated that the. Thus when war appeared to be looming again only a few decades later, the. The Garand performed so well that the U. During the s and early s several experiments were carried out to improve the Garand. One of the most common complaints was the limited capacity 8-round en-bloc clip and many experimental designs modified the weapon with a detachable box magazine.
Springfield Armory 's T20 rifle was a fully automatic version. Though not adopted, experience with a fully automatic Garand laid the groundwork for its replacement. The test program continued for several years, including both the original. In the end, the T65 cartridge demonstrated power roughly equal to the original.
The eventual result of this competition was the T44 rifle. When the United States developed the T65 cartridge, the British military took a different route. They had spent considerable time and effort developing the intermediate-power. The U. The American philosophy was to use automatic fire for emergencies only and continue to use semi-automatic fire the majority of the time.